All University Students In England Allowed To Return From 17 May

The Prime Minister has confirmed that all university students in England will be allowed to return to face-to-face teaching on campus next week, as part of step 3 of the government’s roadmap out of lockdown. Over 1 million students who have been studying online since Christmas can now go back to university for in-person learning from 17 May. However, many institutions will have already finished their teaching timetable. The returning students are being asked to take a Covid test at least one day before travelling back to term-time accommodation to limit the spread of any infections. Last week, the Office for National Statistics revealed that 82% of students in England were already back at university, though their studies remained online. However, students on practical courses including science and engineering were allowed back on campus from 8 March. The last to return will take three supervised lateral flow device tests three or four days apart on campus, then submit to tests twice a week for the rest of the summer term. This delayed return has caused frustration among both vice-chancellors and students, many of whom feel neglected by the government’s plans for lifting lockdown restrictions.

Meanwhile, the Universities Minister, Michelle Donelan, has launched a graduate employment and skills guide to support pandemic graduates in building skills and kickstarting their careers, at a time when there is much economic uncertainty. The guide is a five-step plan that includes a range of tools, advice and resources to help graduates make post-university choices, identify and develop critical skills, gain professional experience and maintain good mental wellbeing. The Department for Education has provided an additional £85m in hardship funding for students in greatest need, on top of the existing £256m that universities can draw on. Despite this, students have campaigned for tuition and accommodation fee rebates as the pandemic has impacted two academic years. There have been record numbers of complaints to the Office of the Independent Adjudicator.

Simon Norton Obituary

Simon Norton, a renowned mathematician, passed away at the age of 66 due to a heart attack. Despite his immense talent, Norton was sometimes mistaken for a homeless man. During the late 1960s, Norton represented Great Britain thrice at the International Mathematical Olympiads. Each time, he achieved the highest score, once even receiving a perfect score of 100%. Norton’s unique talent resided in his ability to explain complex theories in simplistic terms elegantly. His expertise lay in abstracts, imaginary numbers, infinity, and prime distribution.

Norton acquired his first degree in Mathematics at Imperial College, London, while he was still in school. However, upon joining Cambridge University, he wasn’t allowed to pursue a Ph.D. immediately. Instead, the mathematics department ordered Norton to repeat his final degree year, causing him to falter for the first time in his academic journey. Norton got only 13 out of 52 alphas in his finals, a far cry from his previous successes. Famous lore narrates that Norton, despite his struggles, was still nowhere near the top of his class. He almost failed his Part III Mathematics which was crucial for anyone interested in research.

Thankfully, Norton’s career trajectory changed positively when he began working with John Conway, a playful and brilliant mathematician, on the Atlas of Finite Groups. The Atlas aimed to catalogue all the fundamental symmetry types, each of which could have different ‘orders.’ Norton became particularly interested in a classification termed ‘the Monster’. He uncovered a uniquely unearthly aspect of group theory – Monstrous Moonshine. When asked to explain this concept, Norton famously quipped, "It is the voice of God."

Apart from his talents in mathematics, Norton was also fond of forming anagrams and playing backgammon. He generated many casual anagrams and solved a tricky one with almost no delay. Norton was remembered for his modesty, with a preference for solving puzzles over defeating people.

During the 15 years it took to write the Atlas, Simon gave an answer that was incorrect for the first time when working with Conway, which the latter noticed immediately. This was the beginning of the end of Simon’s success story. His slide was neither due to a loss of talent nor focus, but it was impossible to determine the cause. Norton’s appearance became increasingly dishevelled over time, with his love for public transport evident from the greasy holdall that he always carried.

Norton’s father ran a family jewellery business but was a distant figure. Norton’s mother, Elaine, identified his mathematical prowess when he was less than two years old. As opposed to throwing toys around, he would stack and organise them. He scored 178 on his IQ test, aged three.

In conclusion, Simon Norton was a rare mathematician who tackled his subject with playful exuberance. Norton’s unique abilities lay in elucidating complex mathematics concepts using simple language. Despite his unconventional appearance, Norton’s exceptional talent will be missed but not forgotten.

In his later years, he possessed a residence in the city of Cambridge and was renowned for his benevolence. He was the sole landlord to reduce his rental charges when the poll tax was introduced by Margaret Thatcher. There were occasions where prospective tenants were presented with a mathematical conundrum, such as deciphering the numerical values that correspond to each letter in the multiplication problem ‘SIMON x P = NORTON’ (there exist two potential solutions). Upon my tenancy in 1995, I encountered him for the first time, and I later documented his biography under the title ‘Simon, The Genius in My Basement’ in 2011.

Simon harboured a deep fondness for public transport, which began in his youth as he would frequently embark upon bus and train rides throughout the country. As he matured, he became an influential advocate against automobiles and authored a witty and regular newsletter for the Campaign for Better Transport. He also made an annual contribution of £10,000 to finance a reward for transport activism, in which he displayed immense satisfaction when one of his recipients glued himself to Gordon Brown. Despite his descent into mathematical inscrutability, Simon became a triumphant and inspiring figure, unfettered by resentment, envy or the sentiment of failure.

He is survived by his siblings, Michael and Francis.

How To Outline A College Admissions Essay

Students should know the basics of essay writing by the time their high school diploma arrives. Some students find writing their college application essay daunting because not all English departments in high schools are the same. We can help you to write a great admissions essay by reviewing the basic essay format and thinking about how to structure your essay.

Sample Basic Template Structure

Let's go over the basics before we get too deep into the process. The basic essay structure that you used in high-school and will use in college is five paragraphs. Standard essays consist of a paragraph that introduces the topic, three paragraphs describing your body and one paragraph summarizing your conclusion. You can add more body paragraphs if you want to, but this five-paragraph essay works best for our purpose. By using this essay structure, you can present your argument, defend it and then conclude it in an organized and coherent way.

Introduction to Ideas

The introduction to any essay should include a thesis statement that clearly defines the topic and goal of your paper. Simple thesis statements might include: “Changing to paperless office models will not just save money for the company, it will reduce wastage, and create a better workspace while helping to protect the environment.” Your introduction paragraph should begin with a general approach to your topic, and gradually bring it in focus. This will allow you to present your argument. The first paragraph should introduce the subject, provide supporting arguments and engage the reader.

The formal body paragraphs

As you continue writing your essay, it is important to give a paragraph each to the main points that you would like to present to support your statement. This is the same as before: The traditional model calls for three sentences to support your thesis statement. But this rule does not apply in all cases. You will need longer essays as you continue to write in college. Order your paragraphs to match your thesis statement. You should support each paragraph with original research and ideas to defend your initial assertion.

You will need to write down your supporting points and research points in the outline of your essay. This will help you to prove your thesis. You should be able to recognize your essay’s skeleton when you review your outline. It will help you identify and correct any flaws in your argument as well as any supporting points that lack or are overly dense with information.

In conclusion

In the final paragraph, you should summarize your argumentation and give your reader your final conclusion. The conclusion of an essay should be written in a standard format. This means that you will restate your thesis statement and then show concisely how the supporting points have supported your original assertion. Your essay’s conclusion must be definitive and strong. You want to end your essay with a concise and coherent piece that shows your understanding of the subject and your ability for argumentation and reasoning.

It may be difficult to begin preparing your college essay. You can impress the admissions board by presenting a coherent essay.

How To Write An Outline In MLA Format

Recently, MLA style or format has become a hot topic. Modern Language Association is MLA. You can write your outline without writing one if you prefer the Modern Language Association style.

If you want to be sure that your teacher will accept and grade your essay, it is best to have an outline. This article will teach you exactly how to write a MLA outline.

To write an essay, you must first choose a topic and do thorough research on it. The thesis must be placed above the outline in MLA format. The word thesis can be typed in capital letters above the outline. Your thesis should be stated in a single sentence. It should include your thoughts and opinions on the subject. When stating your thesis, you can use comparison and contrast.

MLA outline must include all the facts, ideas and examples you need to back up your thesis. You should choose the strongest proof that supports your thesis first. Then, organize the remainder based on the strength of the evidence. Prepare an outline. It will enable you to review the information you've gathered. You might want to change or remove something. An outline will help you to identify if there are any important examples and ideas that you may have overlooked, or if there is extra information. Your essay's main focus will be determined by the supporting ideas, information and points. Your thesis will be deemed reliable or unreliable based on the supporting information, ideas and points. The importance of thorough research, initial drafting and careful writing cannot be overstated.

It is important to note that there are some specifics when writing an outline for MLA. You must use Roman numbers and a period to indicate your main ideas. Capital letters are used for the information that clarifies those main ideas. The Arabic numbers are followed by lowercase letters, and then the numbers in parenthesis. Keep all sections parallel. Here is an example of MLA format outline.

How to write a MLA outline

Thesis – A good thesis will help you to write a convincing paper that is trustworthy.

I. Do thorough research on the topic you choose.

A. The strongest arguments to support your thesis

B. Find opposing arguments

C. Write a story about yourself that supports your thesis

II. Create a rough draft of your outline

A. Re-evaluate your arguments and thesis for the final time

1. Arguments that sound unconvincing should be deleted

2. Sort your arguments according to their strength

B. Finally, check the credibility of your arguments.

1. Please proofread your outline.

A. Remove any grammatical and contextual errors

B. Review your outline one final time.

Another type of outline is the decimal, but it's less common. The only difference between this and the previous outline is that the Arabic numbers are used. You can use this example:

1.0. Do thorough research on the topic you choose.

1.1. Find the strongest evidence that supports your thesis

1.2. Find opposing arguments

1.3. Consider an example of a personal experience that supports your thesis

If you have trouble defining the main topic and subtopic, ask yourself if an idea can be added or if it starts a new discussion. Ask yourself if you can add an idea or if the subtopic is a completely new discussion – if you're having difficulty outlining your main topic and its subtopics. All entries should be parallel. It should be fairly easy to write an essay, as well as an outline using MLA format.

Creating A Descriptive Essay Outline – Format & Example

To write a great descriptive essay, you must first draw a plan. It is possible to write your thoughts down before creating a description essay outline.

Discover how to write an outstanding descriptive essay.

You must create an image in the minds of your readers by engaging their senses. The essay provides all sensory details as well as a full description of the subject. An outline helps organize the sensory details and information of the topic.

A typical descriptive essay is composed of five paragraphs. Essay writing is most often done in a five-paragraph format. This is an example of a five paragraph descriptive essay.

5 Paragraph Descriptive Essay Outline

An essay with five paragraphs will have an introduction, three body sections, and a conclusion. A descriptive essay should include these three sections. This is a requirement to write a good descriptive essay.

By following these guidelines, you can create a descriptive essay with a correct structure. Here’s how to write an essay with 5 paragraphs.

Descriptive Essay Introduction

A reader will first read your introduction in an essay. This means that it must be both engaging and eye-catching. It should be able entice the reader into reading the whole essay.

Start your introduction with an intriguing hook statement to grab the attention of the reader. Mention briefly the main ideas you will discuss in your body. Give a thesis that is both informative and emotional.

Descriptive Essay Body Paragraphs

Body is where the sensory details and a full description of your topic are presented. Each idea should be presented as a separate paragraph. The body paragraphs of a typical five-paragraph essay are usually composed of three. They can also be expanded to include more information and ideas.

Each paragraph in the body should start with a subject sentence that is centered around a particular idea. The body paragraphs are arranged chronologically. Use vivid words to paint a picture in the mind of your reader.

Evidence that supports the discussion will help readers understand it. Cite credible sources from outside to support your argument. Finish each paragraph of your body with an analysis that is informative.

Descriptive Essay Conclusion

The conclusion of an essay should leave readers satisfied. Explain the reason you chose to write this essay.

Reaffirm the thesis in order to remind your reader what the essay is about. Rephrase your thesis statement, not simply copy it from the intro paragraph. Summarize what you’ve written and direct the reader to your conclusion.

The essay’s conclusion should be the last sentence. You should conclude your essay with a powerful conclusion or analysis.

Descriptive Essay Writing Tips

You have probably already mastered the art of creating an outline for your descriptive essay. Here are some tips to help you write a perfect essay in no-time.

  • Brainstorm different topics and ideas. Your essay should have a unique topic.
  • Create a compelling outline. Creating a descriptive essay outline helps you organize your ideas.
  • You can learn how to format a descriptive article by looking at examples.
  • Engage your reader’s 5 senses: hearing, sighting, touching, smelling, and tasting.
  • Please provide a detailed sensory description.
  • Transition words can help you to connect your thoughts logically and organize them.
  • Make sure you edit and proofread the essay before submitting it.

Self-Introduction Speech Topics, Ideas And Outline

It is difficult to introduce oneself. You only get one chance to make an impression in any social situation.

Most people hesitate to express themselves when the time comes. Some of this is because we are afraid to offend others and risk being judged. One reason may be that most of us don't know how to describe ourselves.

There's no reason to be worried. Plan, be composed, and maintain balance to create a memorable introduction.

What is an introduction speech?

Self-introduction speeches are a way to introduce yourself to large groups of people. It could be at an event, a meeting, or a seminar. You can use it for a personal reason, like giving a wedding speech.

Self-introduction speeches are also one-point speeches. This is a speech that has a singular goal, which would be to provide a short overview of the speaker, their work and interests.

What is the purpose of a self introduction speech?

Self-introduction speeches are designed to provide a brief overview about who you and your work is.

There are also other uses. You can use a self introduction speech to:

  • Develop rapport with audience: You can build rapport with an audience by introducing yourself. This is crucial if you plan to present or work with someone in a certain capacity.
  • Establish Credibility: Before you ask your audience to act or to believe in what you say, it is important that you establish credibility. Self-introduction speeches can help you achieve this.
  • Grab your audience's focus: You can do this with a self-introduction by grabbing people's attention.

Self-introduction Speech Characteristics

It is important to sound natural, positive and sincere when giving your self-introduction. You don't want to sound scripted, but like you.

Four main features define a self introduction speech. They are:

  • Concise. A self introduction speech should not be long and boring. Your goal is to quickly introduce yourself and your job without going too in-depth. You don't need to occupy the audience with too many details or bore them.
  • A Self-Introduction Speech Should Be Focused. This could include introducing yourself, building rapport, establishing credibility, or grabbing the audience's interest. Avoid talking about topics they aren't interested in.
  • Prepared. It is a great idea to prepare your speech and practice it. You will be able to keep your focus and refrain from rambling. This doesn't mean you have to memorize everything you want to say, but it will help you to stay focused.
  • Confident. Your self-introduction should be confident. You shouldn't be too confident, but your confidence should come across.

What to say in your self-introduction?

The length of a self-introduction should not exceed 1-2 minutes. This time is sufficient to give the audience an overview of your background and work.

You can include the following in a self introduction speech:

  • Share your name and tell us a bit about yourself. What is your hometown? What are your interests? What do you like to do?
  • Your Experience: Be sure to include your experience if it is relevant, for example, in the field that you are discussing. It will give you credibility.
  • Share your achievements. Please share any awards or achievements that you've received. You will be able to show your expertise and recognition in the field.
  • Share your goals. This will help the audience understand your motivation and drive.

A self-introduction outline

Introducing yourself can be a difficult task for some people. To make a good first impression, they think that it is necessary to be witty and impressive. Truthfully, it's best to be yourself.

Here's an outline of how to give a self-introduction:

  • Intro: Introduce yourself briefly, including your name and other relevant information.
  • Main Body: Share more information in the main body about yourself and your work.
  • Concluding: Close with a summary of your project or goals.

Topics for self-introduction speeches

You may have a particular topic in mind when preparing a speech about yourself for a meeting or event. You can choose the topic of your self-introduction for a class or work.

You can select from a variety of topics for your self-introduction speeches:

  1. Your name and background.
  2. What are you doing now?
  3. What is your career/field of work?
  4. A project you're working on or a goal that you have in mind.
  5. You can learn a lot from a recent failure or success.
  6. What is your passion?
  7. What is your background?
  8. What is your biggest life challenge?
  9. What makes you happy?
  10. Have you got any advice for other people who are experiencing a difficult situation?
  11. What do you enjoy doing?
  12. What are your pet hates?
  13. What are your special talents?
  14. What is your favourite thing to do?

To sum up

Remember that your introduction speech should not be too long. You should be able in just a couple of minutes to convey a basic idea about you.

Your self-introduction should be relevant and engaging. Avoid rambling and appear confident if you wish to make a good impression.

How To Create A Perfect Outline For The Content You Deserve

It is not always easy to find the best freelancers. Even writers have trouble communicating effectively. Your writing will be more interesting and structured if you use a content plan. Learn more.

It is difficult to attract your readers with original and creative content. The majority of readers spend just a few seconds reading an article before deciding what they want to do. If your content makes a great first impression, you will be followed by them. They will move on to another website if they don't like what they see. Understanding content marketing and the importance of a well-structured outline is essential.

The perfect outline of your content will capture the attention of your readers at first sight. This can help you rank your article higher on Google.

Here are some tips that will help you achieve your content marketing objectives.

What is a Outline? Why do I need one?

You need to create an outline before you begin writing any article, whether you're a newbie or seasoned professional. If you do not create a solid outline, it is possible that your article does not have a clear direction. This could lead to losing readers.

What is an outline of content?

A content outline can be described as the skeleton for your blog or article. A content outline is a methodical and intelligent way to organize the research you have done and your thoughts into a coherent story or article. You can answer questions of the reader before they even ask them.

You can make your article more readable by creating an outline. Your outline will give you a clear picture of what you want to achieve with your article. A content outline is a great way to start your journey towards best writing practices.

An outline can be compared to a map, which will help you reach your destination without much difficulty.

Use an outline to get the most out of your work

  • You can build a content marketing plan that is effective.
  • Your article will have a better structure if you follow the guidelines.
  • Gives your readers a good flow
  • Helps to organize thoughts when writing an article
  • Use this tool to help you organize your time when writing articles.
  • You can use this tool to identify the unique selling points of your article.
  • Writer's block? This article will help you overcome it
  • You can discover new topics.
  • Stay focused

How to create a perfect outline

1. Know your audience

It seems easy. Many people begin writing without knowing who they are trying to reach. Before you start writing, it's best to ask yourself some questions.

  • What is my audience?
  • Does my primary readership influence secondary readers?
  • How do they find your blog?

You're writing for an attorney's office. Your primary audience may include existing and potential customers. Your secondary audience can be much larger and include law journalists, attorneys, or anyone who may need your services in the future.

Understanding your audience is essential to knowing what they are looking for online. Then, you can optimize the article for SEO using keywords that are specific to your audience.

2. Do extensive research on the topic you choose.

"A writer spends the majority of his time reading and writing: an individual will read half a book to produce one."

Samuel Johnson

A good outline begins with a great topic. To attract readers, you need to brainstorm and find the perfect topic. You can get some great ideas by reading the comments left on your past blogs. Create a blog where you can provide structured answers to their questions. You can also use ideas generators.

After you have chosen a topic, it is time to do extensive research. It is important to read a variety of articles, talk with industry professionals or watch videos that provide information. You will be able to write a great article for your blog by following these steps.

3. Start by writing your headlines

Knowing how to write and structure your content is the next step towards creating an outline.

Start by focusing on your headlines. Heading tags such as H1, H2, and H3 help to clarify your message. It's not necessary to get fancy yet. It's best to start with the 4 or 5 main ideas and let the rest flow.

The process of creating a blog is long, especially if your goal is to make one that's authoritative and could rank in Google. Don't rush to the outline stage – the right structure will make a huge difference.

4. Show, Don't Tell

Content marketing is not all about words and sentences. Your article can be made more interesting by a variety of things. These include:

  • Real-life examples
  • Sayings
  • Statistic and survey findings
  • Relevant visuals
  • Bullet Points

These elements not only boost your SEO but also make your blog read and feel more complete. These elements can also be used to break up a monotonous, long text and direct readers' attention towards specific sections of an article. Before you start writing your blog post, add these elements. Let them guide you.

5. Article introduction and conclusion

The introduction and conclusion hold everything together, like the buns on a burger. In the introduction, you should tell the readers what the article is about, provide facts and statistics to support your topic, and give the reader a summary of the whole piece so they can decide whether it will help them. In the final paragraph, summarise your article by highlighting the main takeaways.

6. Be inspired but original

Original content enhances online image. Your readers will know if your content is rushed or stuffed with keywords to try and 'cheat their way to higher ranking'. Search engines remove inaccurate results from their top rankings. To beat these algorithms, you must create material that's intelligent, creative, and amazing. Google, world's biggest search engine, considers the originality of the material to be a key factor when determining a web site's reputation. This boosts the chances for it to appear higher in search engine rankings. In order to stand out, you must have relevant and original content. Content marketing strategies are built on the basis of original content. Original content is a variety of things – from an idea that's never been seen before to a perspective put on already written material.

7. Credit where credit is due

List statistics, facts, quotations, and any other information that you have taken directly from another author. Cite their names in your text. Citing the author of the words and ideas in your paper is a good way to acknowledge them. This allows readers to learn more about your concepts and references. Citing your sources accurately and regularly is the easiest way to avoid plagiarism.

8. Polishing the content: Editing & Proofreading

It's like adding the last sprinkles to a cake or adding details with icing. It not only makes the content easier to read, but gives it an air of professionalism. The reader may not take your content seriously if you make spelling errors, errors, or sentence inconsistencies. The deadline is a good time to spend on proofreading and editing content.

9. Quality is more important than quantity

Readers will appreciate any piece of content written with a quality mindset. If you are just writing words down to make up a word tally, then it will not be a good blog or article. Your content will not rank well on Google if it isn't written well. It loses its originality and unique selling point. Do a thorough research on your topic. See what other people think about it. Check out social media to get a better understanding of the audience's perspective. The quantity of your writing will be taken care of by the number and variety you can generate on a given topic. The organic ranking that comes with quality writing is the result of good content. People who like it will bookmark your site, come back and spend more time there. This will elevate your content-marketing strategy.

10. SEO is also important

SEO practices are essential to reaching your audience. To reach the right audience, you should research keywords relevant to your content, the meta title, and the meta description before mapping out your outline. SEO is vital for any successful content strategy. Google also rates your content based 'Search Task Achievement'. That means that you content is solving the problem for the searcher. If yes, you'll be at the top of the list and people will read your article first when they do a search on a subject related to it.

In conclusion

Most people don't bother to create an outline, as it requires a great deal of time and energy.

It is not clear to them that this can be a great way to save time, energy and become more innovative. You only have to write and promote your content once you've created a detailed outline.

It's difficult to create great content. You can make it easier if you focus on something you love. Your content will remain online for as long as you post it! Three years from today, the content you created will have been seen and shared. Start writing today and have fun with the process.

Story Planning & How To Step Outline A Screenplay

What is a Step-Outline Diagram?

You have this brilliant idea. If only someone could make it into a film! You think, "Why don't I do it myself?" Why not? Why not? But you have to start by laying the foundations.

Plan Your Story!

Inexperienced writers often jump straight into a complete screenplay without outlining it first. This step is called in the business "step-outlining".
Step outline is basically a breakdown of your story in a step-by-step manner. You will save a lot of time by planning out your story structure before you start.

Movie Outline allows screenwriters a simple and effective way to plot their story. It also provides references to successful films of all types.

These 12 movie analyses and summaries are divided into:

  • Die Hard
  • True Romance
  • Mary is a Special Woman
  • When Harry met Sally
  • Shout
  • Good Will Hunting
  • Dead Poets Society
  • Apparition
  • A beautiful female encounters a wealthy man who helps her find her true worth.
  • Seven people
  • A cyborg is sent from the future to kill a woman whose unborn son will grow up to lead a rebellion against the machines.
  • Spider-Man

There are now more options available!

What's the Scene?

Movie Outline calls the steps "Steps", not "Scenes". While this may seem confusing to screenwriters who have been using "Scenes" to refer to film timings and screenplay layouts, it is actually very easy to understand.

Each "Scene" can be more than one step in a Movie Outline. Montage sequences can be used to:

Joe leaves the apartment and drives to the bank.

It may be three scenes for a screenplay but only one for a Step-Outline. This is due to the fact that the step-outline requires you to focus on the most important storyline event, and not get too detailed. The scene is described as long as Joe does not do anything major while getting into his vehicle. What happens next is when Joe enters a bank.

Car chases are another example. In a film, each scene is the location through which the cars chased pass. But because the event is the same in all the scenes, they are called steps.

Imagine that in your screenplay, your Hero is bravely running into a building on fire to rescue a child as other firefighters desperately try to put it out. Technically, the scenes are separated by each room where your Hero is searching, and when we return to them, there are also separate scenes. However, planning your story makes it easier to view this as just one event.

Outlining vs. Rewriting

It's true that I didn't outline my films before writing them. I sat with a notebook and pen and started writing. It was liberating, to be honest. The literary world calls it "streams of consciousness". What appears in your mind is suddenly on paper. The flow of the writing takes you on a journey.. but, beware! Before you know what's happening, you find yourself ten chapters into your script with no idea where it is going.

In the past, I would never have thought this was an issue, but then I found myself having to rewrite my work another 150 or so times. It wasn't just for the producers or development executives. This was just for me. I am still my worst critic. I know what works for me and what doesn't.

As a director, too, I've always approached screenwriting projects as if it were my own project. Although it was unrealistic, I could see my work with a fresh perspective. It was objective. I have learned to pace my stories and cut scenes early in order to make them as long as possible. Now I see all my stories as images. I now see my stories as pictures, not words. I think of the scenes in my screenplays not as words but rather as blueprints that can be moved around, and not just a collection of prose and dialog stuck to a page.

Confused? Please read on.

Imagine that the words you are writing on a piece of paper or typing into your computer are permanently etched in stone. The scenes will stay in their original order for eternity. The script is a reflection and extension of your original story. It can be shaped to fit the story you always wanted.

This is more difficult to achieve if you haven't planned out your script first. To avoid this, I started writing scripts first and then outlining them. It's not true. I began outlining my ideas because I wanted producers and development executives to be able to see them and not just scribbled notes. These outlines became longer treatments. I began to write screenplays only after I finished "step outlining" my ideas. The transition was strange and subconscious, but I am glad it happened.

It has helped me focus on cinematic ideas by planning out screen stories from one major event or event to the next. I've also been able define the core structure of screenplays as well as their main character arcs.

You will save a lot of time by hammering out your central plot and events in advance.

How To Outline A Book In 7 Easy Steps

How to Outline a Novel: To Outline, or not to Outline?

Writing a book of fiction isn’t just about writing. It’s also about knowing how to turn an idea into a book.

The process of writing a book is a difficult one for most first-time authors. They have a great idea, then think “I should write a book about that,” before they start writing.

Most authors will never get to the “End” by using this method. Why? They are overwhelmed. Because they get overwhelmed. The story gets stuck and they don’t know where to go.

Most likely, they simply need a more effective plan.

Most projects require some planning. Most people wouldn’t go on vacation, build a house or perform in front of an audience without some kind of plan. Knowing what you are getting into is important.

The same applies to outlining a novel. You need to know as much information as possible so that you are confident and make fewer errors.

It’s important to note that not everyone is a good outliner. You might not enjoy it. You won’t find out until you give it a try.

Outlining comes in many forms, variations, and methods. One of them might be perfect for you. You can read our article on how to outline a nonfiction or memoir book.

There are many types of outliners

Let’s look at the way to organize your story now that you understand its importance. In this article, we will break down the four most popular types of outlining.

Some outline types are more effective for some people than others. Some methods are better suited for those who need flexibility or are more visually oriented. It’s important to find the right style and method for you.

Summary Outlining

Summary method is the easiest and simplest way to create an outline.

Here’s where you will divide your book into chapters with short summaries for each.

You will briefly summarize what occurs in each chapter, who is present, the location, etc. It’s up to you how much detail you include.

This is a great method if you’re a fan of starting at the beginning, and thinking linearly. Make sure you follow your chosen story arc.

The index card is outlined

This method is very flexible and popular. You can use this method to organize your story by writing short scene summaries on index cards.

This method works well for visual writers that don’t necessarily think in linear fashion, but who need to visualize the scenes and reorder them to gain a better grasp of the overall plot.

This method is especially useful when there are multiple characters and subplots.

Mind Mapping

It is a flexible method that is visual.

You can create an outline by writing the main idea in the middle of your paper, and then letting your mind wander on to other related topics such as characters or settings.

As you develop new ideas, consider how they might work with other ideas.

If you’re looking for a method that allows you to explore every idea and see which one works best with your story, mind mapping is the way to go. It’s simple to clean up your mind map once you have all of your ideas written down.

Which Outlining Method is Right for You?

The method and level of detail you use will ultimately depend on the amount of freedom you desire to write with.

Some writers are happy with a simple plot while others prefer to have their entire research, setting and characters mapped out.

While you outline, remember that you do not have to get into extreme detail. You can skip a few steps, or even a whole bunch.

It’s crucial that you create a writing process that will make you more productive!

How to outline a book

1. Clarify Your Premise

Clarify the premise of your book before you start fleshing out characters or planning your chapters.

Outlining a novel is all about knowing what the story is. If your premise is unclear, your work will be wasted.

Ask yourself these questions:

  • What is the main character of my story?
  • What is the main goal of my character?
  • Why does my character’s main goal exist?
  • Why should readers care?

Once you have figured all of this out, start by creating your topic or premise statement. This will be your guide as you continue to develop your story.

Harry Potter, an eight-year-old boy, learns about his magical abilities and faces off against Lord Voldemort.

Your premise need not be very specific but should make it clear if you have an idea that is solid enough to carry a full book.

2. Create your main character(s)

Once you’ve established your premise, it’s time to start thinking about the characters who will make your story come alive.

You may want to move on to the plot building before this, but you should not. Each of your main character’s goals must drive all your decisions.

If you rush into your plot, you may end up with passive characters.

A story with passive characters is boring.

You will find it much easier to develop and outline your plot if you know your characters.

This recorded webinar will teach you how to create captivating characters.

3. Select Your Narrative Framework

Once you’ve decided on your main idea and the cast of characters you want to use, you can begin writing your story.

This is where many authors give up on outlining their story and dive straight into it. Narrative structure is a crucial part of plot development, so do not skip it.

Take some time to consider the different narrative structures available, such as plot-driven, character-driven, linear or circular.

When you choose a framework for your story, it is much easier to create the scenes.

For help in structuring your story, this is a helpful guide.

4. Divide your story into scenes

Scenes are the next step after you have determined the plot of your story.

It is a tedious and difficult step to outline because each scene must be both interesting and relevant, while also contributing to the overall plot.

Keep in mind that each scene should have a specific goal. This could be to advance the plot or to introduce or reveal new characters.

You can then work to make each scene interesting and engaging for the reader.

Sara Anne Fox suggests that to create great scenes, “start later and leave as quickly as possible.” It is important to keep the story moving forward without boring the readers.

5. Please fill in all the details

You can take time to plan out your outline based on the amount of detail you desire. This includes research, settings, plot details, and any other information that you think will be useful when you begin writing.

You and your writing style will decide how much detail to include in the outline.

It’s better to do the research now than later. You may benefit in the end.

It’s a good idea to get an understanding of the world you will be writing in, if you are writing a novel.

This is a great way to learn more about minor characters. These details will not appear in your book but they can help you develop more realistic characters.

6. Get a closer look

After you’ve gotten a clear idea of the overall look and feel of your book, you should dive deeper into its mechanics.

Spend some time thinking about all the information you’ve collected. Is the pace right? Foreshadowing is important.

Are all the scenes that you have outlined essential to the overall story?

It is not essential to do this. Some writers prefer the tedious details to be worked out in later drafts.

You should also spend time on your outline if you don’t have much experience editing.

If you want to receive feedback before writing, this is the time.

You may find it difficult to imagine your story the way you do. The outline is not as compelling or interesting as the finished story.

You can ask people for their opinion if they are trustworthy and you want to get good feedback.

7. Step back and start writing!

Stopping is the final and perhaps most important step of outline.

Writers can easily get lost with an outline. You can get stuck in any stage of the writing process.

You’ll never get a perfect outline. Some things are best left to be discovered as you write.

Allow yourself to explore your story. Don’t forget that writing a book can be a creative process.

No matter how “perfectly” you would like your outline, there are always ways to improve it. You outline is a tool, not a rule book. Your story is yours. You are free to change your story and make it fit the situation.

How To Write An Informative Speech

The purpose of an informative speech or presentation is to inform or educate the audience. This type of speech can be used to inform or educate your audience about a certain subject or phenomenon. Be sure to align your speech with your audience's interests.

Use vivid words to describe the scene in your mind. You need to describe something in a way your audience can understand.

Be sure to present your facts conclusively and in a manner that informs and leaves the audience without any need for clarification.

It is important to tread carefully when presenting the information to your listeners. This is not a speech that you are trying to convince them to agree with your viewpoint. You can improve your audience's understanding and flow by researching your audience before your speech.

This article provides a few guidelines on how to create an effective speech. Let's begin by choosing a topic.

How to select a topic for an informative speech

Research the topic thoroughly before writing your speech. Make sure you have a lot of valid reasons to support it. You want to ensure that your topic will make a good presentation, and have the audience nod in agreement. Use the following tips to select an appropriate topic for an informational speech:

Identifying your main interests

Consider your interests first before presenting a speech. What interests you? Is science, food, or business your passion? You should choose a speech subject that interests you. This will make it easier and more comfortable to research as well as to convey your message to the audience.

You will do extensive research into the eating habits and preferences of your audience if you decide to write a speech on healthy eating. Your audience can get valid advice on eating healthy foods by using the local food options.

Take into consideration the length of presentation

It is important to manage your time when preparing a presentation. You have 25 minutes for your presentation. Select a subject that will allow you to cover the entire time.

Study your audience

Relevance is the key to a successful presentation. Age, educational background and cultural interests, as well as the audience's age, are all factors to consider. Your audience should relate to the topic you choose.

You need to be persuasive when you give an informative speech about fast food. This is because you will have to convince young people of the benefits of eating less fast food.

How to write an informative speech

You will now have to write down the information you've gathered. You can use these steps to create your informative speech.

Write a statement of thesis

Your thesis should summarize your entire speech in a single concise sentence. You can write a thesis that says, "Reducing consumption of fast food reduces lifestyle diseases by 80%". Now your audience knows where you are going with your speech.

Create an outline for your speech

You can now outline your information flow. Sort your points from strongest to weakest. You should write down relevant examples to help your audience understand what you're saying.

Insist on informing, not persuading

The goal is to get your audience to acknowledge the facts, not to agree with your assertion. By clearly presenting the topic to your audience, you can make it objective. Use declarative words rather than arguments.

End with an action call

You should now summarize your main points and thesis statement.

In your body of your speech, highlight the most important points.

You were educating the audience about the facts that underlie the subject. So, you should encourage them to take action on the facts that you have presented. You could end your example of healthy eating with a brief speech that highlights the benefits.


A speech that is informative should not be argumentative or convincing, but rather educational. First, choose the topic. This is followed by an outline, a body of information, and a concluding statement that calls for action.